Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Wildlife and Fisheries Science

First Advisor

Timothy C Modde

Second Advisor

Charles G. Scalet


The purpose of this study was to test a stream classification system proposed for the Black Hills National Forest. Stream physiochemical characteristics and macroinvertebrate community structure were compared among three geomorphically distinct landtype associations in the Black Hills. Stepwise disciminant analysis identified five physiochemical variables, which explained 90% of the variability among landtype associations. The classificatory discriminant procedure correctly reclassified 47 of 52 stations based on the five discriminating invertebrate taxa. Each landtype association was sufficiently different in stream physiochemical characteristics to permit classification. Macroinvertebrates exhibited distributional patterns related to changes in geomorphic structure and stream order, among landtype associations. Streams among landtype associations differed in physiochemical characteristics, size, and macroinvertebrate community structure. The Crystalline Canyonlands were dominated by larger order streams, with lower quality invertebrate habitat, associated with geomorphic structure and stream position in the drainage pattern. Macroinvertebrate community structure was different in the Crystalline Canyonlands than in the Moderately Rolling Uplands and Gently Dipping Plateaulands. The Gently Dipping Plateauland and Moderately Rolling Upland streams were similar in physiochemical composition, size, and macroinvertebrate community structure. Macroinvertebrate standing biomass and richness differed within streams among landtype associations. Stream order and geomorphic structure acted synergistically in structuring stream ecosystems in the Black Hills. The landtype association level of classification is appropriate for detecting differences among streams.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Stream ecology -- Black Hills (S.D. and Wyo.)
Invertebrate populations -- Black Hills (S.D. and Wyo.)
Rivers -- Black Hills (S.D. and Wyo.) -- Classification


Includes bibliographical references (pages 37-40)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


No Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Only