Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Biology and Microbiology

First Advisor

Bonny L. Specker


aBMD, bone, DXA, pQCT, sport


Mechanical loading – or physical activity – is essential in the bone remodeling process as well as optimizing the densitometric and geometric properties of bone throughout the lifespan. Participation in sports is a common mode of physical activity that can enhance bone mass accrual at younger ages and facilitate bone mass maintenance at older ages. Research suggests that sport participation continued from adolescence into high school and college provides added benefits on aBMD and cortical bone measures and these benefits remain 10-15 years after retirement from sport. However, in most studies, the higher rates of bone loss after sport cessation in the athlete population leads to similar aBMD measures as non-athletes by fifty to sixty years of age. The following chapters introduce research studies that use DXA and pQCT measures during collegiate sport participation and after sport cessation to evaluate the short- and long-term effects on aBMD, cortical and trabecular bone parameters. The topics of the influence of a training season on bone and body composition of female collegiate soccer players, the response of aBMD to a range of years of retirement from collegiate soccer and football, and the comparison of DXA and pQCT measures between groups with various sport-seasons of high school and college sport participation multiple years after sport cessation are reported. Overall, participation in sport provides short-term benefits on bone; however, this benefit does not persist beyond the mid-fifties.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Bone densitometry.
Athletes -- Physiology.


Includes bibliographical references



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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