Jasmeen Kaur

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

First Advisor

Kasiviswanathan Muthukumappan, Ph.D.


Canola/rapeseed meal (CM) ranks second behind soybeans in global production of protein from oil cakes and meals. Commercial CM has been investigated as a feed ingredient in diets of a number of fish species. Camelina (Camelina sativa) has been a potential oilseed crop. The fat extracted meal contains over 40% protein. Camelina yields an average of 420–640 L/ha, and the protein and fiber content in its meal byproduct is comparable to that of soybean meal. Brassica carinata possesses many positive agronomic traits, and it can grow well in hot, dry, and semiarid climates and seed oil from these species and its byproduct (carinata meal) may have potential applications in the food, biofuel, and feed industries. The sugars present in the canola, camelina and carinata meal can be used as a source for production of feed for the fish: the sugars can be converted into a high protein diet with the help of fermentation. Due to comparatively low sugar content in oilseed meals, this issue needed to be resolved. To solve this issue, the canola, camelina and carinata meal needs to increase their sugar level by using a pre-treatment. First of all, two different types of meals were prepared by using cold press oil extractor and accelerated solvent extractor. After extraction using two different methods, pre-treatment was done. Extrusion was used as a pre-treatment. The xviii canola, camelina and carinata meal were extruded using a total of 9 combinations of temperature and screw speed. Three different temperature including 80°C, 130°C and 180°C and screw speed of 50, 100 and 150 rpm were used. In order to measure the increased sugar recovery, enzymatic hydrolysis was done followed by the HPLC analysis. The enzymes were added at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 FPU/g cellulose in order to optimize the enzyme dosage. The sugar recovery was measured in terms of glucose, galactose and arabinose recovery. The extruder processing conditions were optimized based on the amount of sugar recovery. Enzyme dosage and extruder processing conditions played a major role in increasing the sugar recovery of canola, camelina and carinata meal. Higher sugar recovery was recorded for accelerated solvent extracted (ASE) canola meal versus to the cold press (CP) extracted canola meal. A significant increase in ASE galactose recovery and glucose recovery (CP&ASE) was observed due to extrusion temperature of camelina meal. It was observed that during extrusion, for camelina meal, temperature had a greater effect than screw speed. Higher sugar recovery was recorded for CP carinata meal than ASE carinata meal. Physical properties can show characteristics of the transition and storage of these plant materials (canola, camelina and carinata meal). These physical properties, include moisture content, bulk density, true density, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), water activity and color and were measured. Thermal properties like thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity were also measured. Extruder temperature had a significant effect (p0.05) of extruder temperature and screw speed was observed on bulk density and true density of CP and ASE carinata meal extrudates. Overall, extruder temperature had a more significant effect versus screw speed on sugar recovery, physical properties and thermal properties of canola, camelina and carinata meal. Extrusion and enzyme dosage played a significant role in increasing the total % sugar recovery of canola, camelina and carinata meals.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Canola meal.; Camelina.; Oilseed plants.; Extrusion process--By-products.


Reference on pages 110-128



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright