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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

First Advisor

Wei Sun


During power system restoration, it is critical to maintain system frequency to avoid any further outage or cascading events. Load pickup is one of the most important tasks that require generation-load balance for a stable system frequency. In current industry practice, small loads are served incrementally to avoid frequency dip that causes instability in system. However, slow load pickup may prolong the system restoration process. As the fast response energy resources, storage system, including batteries and electric vehicles can expedite load pickup by compensating the imbalance between generation and load. The objective of this thesis was to develop a restoration strategy for reliable load pickup and faster restoration using energy storage in transmission and distribution systems. Frequency response of conventional generators for sudden load pickup by the system was modeled and simulated. Optimization problem of finding load pickup sequence to maximize restored energy was formulated as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem. Transmission and distribution restoration optimization model was designed to increase the efficiency of the system restoration procedure. Case studies with different storage capacities were tested to evaluate benefit of storage systems in power system restoration. Simulation results suggested that energy storage is able to increase total restored energy and reduce load restoration time after a blackout. Simulation results on 100-feeder test system demonstrated the benefit of using MILPxii based restoration strategy and the benefit from electric vehicles to restore more energy in given restoration time. The proposed restoration strategy has great potential to facilitate system operators to achieve optimized system restoration plans. This study provides incentives to deploy a large amount of PHEVs to improve system resiliency.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Electric power systems -- Load dispatching
Electric power transmission


Includes bibliographical references (pages 89-92)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright