Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Wildlife and Fisheries Science


Sudan Red IV, Sudan Black B, and demethylchlortetracycline (DMCT) were tested as physiological markers in baits for raccoon (Procyon lotor). DMCT was readily detected in the jawbone of raccoons given 50 mg when examined under an ultraviolet light at period of 7, 30, 75, and 450 days following treatment. Seven days after administering 75 mg of Sudan Red IV, it could not be detected in fat deposits. Sudan Black B, administered in similar dosage, could not be detected at 30 days. A total of 1826 chicken eggs containing 50 mg DMCT was distributed on a 25 square-mile study area between August 20 and September 15, 1970. Animals were later collected on that area from September 27 to December 31, 1970 and during April, 1971. Thirty-one raccoons were collected and 27 (88 percent) were marked. Of 21 skunks (mephitis mephitis) collected, 6 (29 percent) were marked. It appears that a raccoon population could be controlled if a chemical available for distribution in late summer or fall that would render an animal sterile the next breeding season. Diethylstilbestrol (DES), which is effective only during the breeding season, was field tested. Female raccoons were collected and maximum uterine swellings for each embryo in the uterus were measured to determine embryo age and date of conception. Dates of conception of raccoon in Brookings County, 1971, extended from February 14 to March 7, a span of 22 days. In the field study on evaluation of DES, baits were distributed in March, 1971; however, raccoons collected had not consumed baits. An operational baiting technique during this period of the year is needed. Tail, hind-foot, body, and rump-to-crown length measurements were found to be reliable to estimate embryo age. These measurements follow a quadratic curve when plotted against embryo age (P<0.01).

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Animal populations


Includes bibliographical references (pages 24-25)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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