Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Wildlife and Fisheries Science

First Advisor

Richard Applegate


Studies were conducted at Gavins Point National Fish Hatchery, South Dakota, in 1976 and 1977, to evaluate the effects of diet and water temperature on growth and survival of paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, young, and the effects that fungicides have on hatching success and fry survival. The W-7 cool water diet was fed hourly and three times daily while the Liv commercial diet was fed hourly to paddlefish young for 40 days after swim-up. Average survival rate and total length of paddlefish fed W-7 hourly were 16.0% and 30 mm, those fed W-7 three times daily were 10.0% and 23 mm, and those fed Liv hourly were 7.5% and 23 mm. The W-7 diet fed hourly was significantly better in terms of survival (P<0.1) and growth (P<0.005). Paddlefish fry were fed the W-7 diet hourly for 40 days after swim-up at water temperatures of 16±1.6°C and 21±1.6°C. The average survival rate and total length of paddlefish reared at the lower temperature were 6.8% and 52 mm, and those reared at the higher temperature were 27.5% and 118 mm. Survival rate and growth were significantly higher (P<0.005) for paddlefish reared at 21±1.6°C. Paddlefish eggs were treated with formalin, for 15 min daily, first at 1667 mg/1 and later at 833 mg/l; and with malachite green, for 2 min daily at 65 mg/1, to control fungus. Hatching success, determined by estimating numbers of fry at swim-up, was 16.6% for the eggs treated with formalin and 21.8% for the eggs treated with malachite green. Hatching success was significantly higher for eggs treated with malachite green (P<0.005). The average survival rate and total length of paddlefish after a 23-day feeding period were 32.2% and 43 mm for fish hatched from formalin treated eggs, and 47.5% and 45 mm for fish hatched from malachite green treated eggs. Fry survival was significantly higher for fry hatched from malachite greet treated eggs (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in total lengths of paddlefish hatched from eggs treated with formalin or malachite green (P>0.1).

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Fishes -- Feeding and feeds
Fishes -- Effect of temperature on


Includes bibliographical references (pages 38-39)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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