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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Civil and Environmental Engineering

First Advisor

Guanghui Hua


As far back as the early 1900’s when it was discovered that water could be a mode of transmitting diseases, chlorine was used to disinfect water in both drinking and waste water treatment plants. In the 1970’s, the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the reaction of chlorine with natural organic matter was discovered. Many DBPs are suspected to cause risks for human health. Indirect potable reuse of wastewater is gaining popularity to mitigate water scarcity worldwide. However, wastewater-derived DBPs may pose risks to downstream aquatic organisms and human health. Many methods have been studied to determine the fate of those DBPs in natural surface water. Solar sunlight photolysis is a natural process by which DBPs may dissipate in the receiving surface water. The objective of this study is investigate the impacts of solar sunlight photolysis on the degradation in water of total organic halogen (TOX) represented by total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr) and iodine (TOI). TOX is an analytically defined measurement that can provide an estimate of total organic bond halogen in water. Studies showed that TOX consist of two fractions, known and unknown TOX which it represent the known and unknown DBPs. There has been a concern over the impact that the unknown DBPs might have health risks along with known DBPs.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Photochemistry Organohalogen compounds Halogens Water -- Purification -- Disinfection -- By-products Photodeg


Includes bibliographical references (pages 70-76)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright