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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Biology and Microbiology

First Advisor

Padmanaban Krishnan


Bakery products have evolved to use flour primarily composed of wheat kernel endosperm (refined flour) opposed to flour milled from the entire kernel (whole wheat flour). A growing body of scientific literature supports the health benefits of incorporating the components of the entire grain kernel into the diet. As a result of the presence of bran and germ, formulating with whole wheat flour adds challenges to the baking process and to producing an end product which is at the same level of consumer acceptance as refined flour products. Although enzymes are routinely used in refined flour formulations there is a paucity of scientific literature on enzyme application in whole grain formulas, particularly, in whole wheat pizza crusts. This research tested the hypothesis that addition of enzymes will modify the whole wheat flour compounds and subsequently change dough, baked bread and pizza crust properties. Characteristics of 11 whole wheat flours, one germ and bran flour and one refined flour were evaluated, along with dough properties and baking attributes. Statistical differences in flour characteristics and baking performance were found between whole wheat flours as well as comparing whole wheat to refined flour. Whole wheat pizza crusts measured lower sensory preference, oven spring, and volume, higher hardness and chewiness and darker color compared to refined pizza crusts.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Whole wheat bread
Cooking (Wheat)


Includes bibliographical references (pages 263-267)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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