Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Wildlife and Fisheries Science


Initial growth and survival rates were estimated for bluegills (Leponis macrochirus) and black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) stocked simultaneously with largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in ponds throughout South Dakota. Mean first year survival for bluegills and black bullheads stocked in eastern South Dakota ponds was 28.6% and 67.7%, respectively. Differences in first year bluegill growth throughout the state were not detected. Total lengths for bluegills averaged 52.4 mm after one growing season statewide and 137.1 mm after two growing seasons in southeastern South Dakota ponds. Significant (P<.05) geographical differences in first year growth of black bullheads were detected with mean lengths ranging from 67.7 mm in northwest ponds to 115.5 mm in southeast ponds. The average total length for black bullheads after two growing season in southeastern South Dakota ponds was 215.2 mm. The combined effects of pH, turbidity, and bicarbonate alkalinity accounted for 67.5% of the variation in first year bluegill growth. The pond parameters total number of growing days, fish present prior to stocking, and pond surface area when combined accounted for 73.9% of the variation in first year black bullhead growth. Differences in bluegill relative weight values were not detected throughout South Dakota; the average for the state was 105.2. Mean black bullhead condition factors (K) for fish with total lengths between 128 and 191 mm were 1.85 and 1.45 for pre- and post-spawning periods, respectively. Bullheads probably spawned between 29 May and 26 June 1980.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Fish stocking -- South Dakota
Black bullhead
Largemouth bass
Ponds -- South Dakota


Includes bibliographical references (pages 33-37)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


No Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Only