Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School



In the classification of organic reactions, condensation is used in two different ways. In a very narrow sense, condensation means any reaction in which a carbon to carbon linkage is formed. In a broad sense, it refers to an organic double decomposition reaction in which the reactants are both large in molecules, and one of the products is a small molecule such as water, ammonia, or hydrogen chloride. An example of a condensation, as defined in the narrow sense, would be the reaction of acetaldehyde to form aldol. However, if the aldol is converted to crotonaldehyde with the elimination of water, then it can be classified as a condensation in the broad sense as well. Theoretically, a condensation reaction can be considered as a reaction which involves preliminary addition followed by an elimination reaction. Many condensation reactions proceed rapidly when the reactants are mixed together at a suitable temperature, but others require condensing agents such as acids, bases, phosphorus pentoxide or zinc chloride. Sometimes these condensing agents act as true catalysts, but in other cases they are used to aid in the elimination of water. Today many condensation reactions are known and much could be said about them. In this research project, the primary interest is focused on the condensation of a phenolic compound and maleic anhydride to produce an acid-base indicator.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Maleic anhydride


Includes bibliographical references (pages 32-33)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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