Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department / School

Natural Resource Management

First Advisor

Michael L. Brown


Aerobic Conversion, Camelina, Carinata, Glucosinolates, Hybrid Striped Bass, Rainbow Trout


Carinata Brassica carinata and camelina Camelina sativa are being genetically modified to improve their composition for biofuel production and other agricultural applications. After oil extraction, the residual de-oiled meals (40%) in protein. However, their inclusion in animal feeds is limited to 10% because of high levels of antinutritional factors (ANFs), mainly glucosinolates (GLS), sinapine, and crude fiber that limit diet intake, nutrient utilization, and lower thyroxine production, resulting in reduced growth. The nutritional value of carinata and camelina seed meals to fish were assessed by subjecting cold pressed (CP) carinata and camelina meals to extrusion (EX), solvent extraction (SE) and aerobic conversion (AC) or sequential process combinations to determine which process(es) yielded improved composition. Carinata meals generally yielded more crude protein and lower fiber. The primary protein increase for both meal types was due to oil removal and AC. Fiber increased with AC, but that step reduced GLS by at least 70%. Palatability was generally improved by SE. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for protein were generally higher in carinata than camelina meals for both Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (RBT) and Hybrid Striped (Sunshine) Bass Morone chrysops ♀ x M. saxatilis ♂ (HSB). Overall protein ADCs were higher in HSB than in RBT. The use of AC on protein ADC was more effective in camelina meals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the maximum GLS concentration from cold-pressed carinata meal (CPCM) containing 61.2 μmoles of GLS and 6.07 mg of sinapine/g of meal that could be tolerated in HSB diets. In experiment 1, there was no effect of up to 2.71 μmoles of GLS and 0.181 mg of sinapine/g of diet on diet palatability, thyroxines production, deiodinase enzyme activity, and consequently HSB growth. In experiment 2, concentrations of ≥5.58 μmoles of GLS and ≥0.54 mg of sinapine/g of diet reduced feed consumption, utilization, and growth. Reduction in palatability due to GLS and sinapine from CPCM may not enable fish to consume enough GLS and / or GLS breakdown products to impair thyroid function. GLS were not lethal to HSB. Based on meal composition, protein ADCs, palatability and GLS tolerance, solvent extracted aerobically converted carinata meal, followed by a single wash (ACCM), was chosen for growth performance trials. In the RBT growth trial, we determined how much fish meal (FM) could be replaced with ACCM. We replaced 25, 50 and 75% of FM in the reference diet containing 20% FM as the sole animal meal, composing diets of 44% crude protein and 17% crude lipid. Diets were balanced for nutrients and fiber. After a 56-day growth period, replacement of more than 25% FM by ACCM resulted in reduced growth partly due to reduced feed consumption. Condition factor (Fulton’s K) decreased with increased FM replacement. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) had an inverse relationship with diet consumption. Results of this study showed that more than 25% of FM cannot be replaced by ACCM in low FM/animal (20%) diets of RBT; improved utilization of ACCM by RBT may occur with more animal meal inclusion or additional processing of ACCM to improve the feeding value. In the HSB growth trial, we determined the maximum inclusion of ACCM or double-washed carinata meal, without AC (WCM) in low (20%) animal diets. We included ACCM at 10 and 30%; and WCM at only 30% of the diets. All diets contained ~44% crude protein 12% crude lipid, and were balanced for fiber. After a 106-day growth period, we observed that HSB fed 30% WCM had a similar weight gain to HSB fed the FM reference diet and 30% ACCM but better than HSB fed 10% ACCM. High (30%) amounts of ACCM or WCM improved feed consumption. FCR of WCM was better than that of ACCM. HSB fed 30% WCM had smaller livers and higher condition factors than HSB fed other treatment diets. Survival (>99%) was similar among treatments. Hematocrit (Hk) and hemoglobin (Hb) contents of HSB were improved by ACCM but not WCM. These results showed that the second wash in WCM improved feed utilization more than ACCM. However, the extra wash step in WCM likely reduced the iron content of WCM resulting in lower Hk and Hb. At the end of the RBT growth trial, trypsin activity, protein ADCs, amino acid ADCs and avaialability were measured to account for observed differences in protein utlization and thus growth. Trypsin activity and protein ADCs were not altered with increasing ACCM in diets. Replacement of more than 25% of FM reduced apparent digestibility of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine, and tyrosine. However, the above essential amino acids (EAAs) were not decreased in serum due to FM replacement with ACCM, although serum from RBT fed 75% ACCM contained lower lysine concentrations. ACCM diets had lower EAA peak concentrations and a slower release of EAAs in serum. Cumulative total EAAs in serum also decreased with ACCM inclusion. The pattern of total EAAs in serum for most sampling intervals best associated with muscle EAAs for the reference and 10 and 15% ACCM. Ratios of EAAs to lysine showed that tryptophan was the most limiting EAA. However, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, and phenylalanine were also inadequate for muscle synthesis for the first 9-12 hours after force-feeding. Optimal time for muscle synthesis was 36 or more hours because all EAAs were adequate except for isoleucine in the muscle of RBT fed the 10% ACCM diet. Following the HSB growth trial, trypsin activity, protein ADCs, amino acid ADCs and avaialability were measured to explain the observed differences in protein utilization and thus growth. Inclusion of up to 30% processed CM did not alter trypsin activity or protein ADCs. However, 30% ACCM reduced isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonine and valine ADCs. Feeding high ACCM (30%) reduced serum arginine and leucine. All inclusions of ACCM or WCM increased serum methionine. High inclusions of ACCM or WCM (30%) increased serum tryptophan and valine. The reference and 30% WCM diets resulted in the highest total essential amino acids (EAAs) in serum but the release of total EAAs in serum of HSB fed 30% WCM was elevated continuously over a longer period. High inclusions of ACCM or WCM (30%) increased muscle histidine but resulted in lower leucine and phenylalanine. Only 30% WCM increased muscle lysine and valine. However, all inclusion levels of ACCM or WCM increased muscle methionine. High inclusions of ACCM or WCM (30%) in diets resulted in more available total EAAs over a longer period. Muscle EAA to lysine ratios showed that only histidine concentrations were adequate for muscle synthesis over the 36-hour period.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Oilseed plants.
Fishes -- Feeding and feeds.
Fishes -- Nutrition.
Fish meal.


Includes bibliographical references



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright