Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date

2018

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department

Animal Science

First Advisor

Tofuko Woyengo

Keywords

antibiotic alternatives, berberine, gut health, pig

Abstract

Pig weaning process results in reduced growth performance and gut health of weaned pigs. Antibiotics can be added in diets for weaned pigs to improve growth performance and gut health, but their use is being discouraged because they can lead to development of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Thus, there is need for alternatives to antibiotics in diets for weaned pigs. The overall goal of this thesis research was to determine the effects of plant extracts (berberine, quercetin, and allyl isothiocyante [AITC]) as alternatives to antibiotics in weaned pig diets. The first objective of the research was to determine in vitro antimicrobial activities of berberine, quercetin, and AITC against Escherichia coli with the goal of identifying the best plant extract for in vivo (animal) studies. Inclusion of berberine in incubation medium at 25, 12.5, 6.25 or 3.125 μg/100 μl reduced (P < 0.05) in vitro growth of E. coli. However, inclusion of berberine in incubation medium at 1.5625 μg/100 μl did not affect in vitro growth of E. coli. Inclusion of AITC and quercetin in the incubation medium at 50.65 μg/100 μl and 11 μg/100 μl, respectively, did not affect in vitro growth of E. coli. Thus, berberine was selected for animal studies because it was more effective (at a lower concentration [~3.0%]) in inhibiting in vitro growth of E. coli than quercetin or AITC. The second objective was to determine the effects of dietary inclusion of berberine at 3.0% inclusion and antibiotics on growth performance and gut health of weaned pigs. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 7 days after weaning, at end which growth performance and indicators of gut health were measured. Dietary inclusion of berberine decreased (P < 0.05) ADFI, ADG, and ileal villous height by 63, 328 and 28%, respectively, and tended to decrease (P= 0.078) transepithelial resistance (which is an indicator of gut permeability to toxins) in duodenum by 20%. Dietary antibiotics did not affect any of the response criteria measured in this study. The last objective was to determine the effects of dietary inclusion of berberine at 0.05% on growth performance and gut health of weaned pigs. Pigs were fed experimental diets (basal diet with or without antibiotics or berberine at 0.05%) for 21 days. Indicators of gut health were determined at day 11 of the study, whereas growth performance was determined at days 11 and 21 of the study. The overall (day 1 to 21) ADG of pigs was increased (P < 0.05) by dietary inclusion of antibiotics by 32.4% and tended to increase (P < 0.06) by dietary inclusion of berberine by 16.6%. The overall ADFI of pigs was also increased (P < 0.05) by dietary inclusion of antibiotics by 21.1%. However, the overall ADFI of pigs was not affected by dietary inclusion of berberine. There was no effect of adding berberine or antibiotics to basal diet on villous height and crypt depth, and villous height to crypt depth ratio in duodenum and jejunum, and on crypt depth in ileum. Also, there was no effect of adding antibiotics to basal diet on villous height and villous height to crypt in ileum. However, villous height to crypt depth ratio in ileum was increased (P < 0.05) by dietary inclusion of berberine. There was no effect of dietary treatment on lactulose:mannitol ratio in urine, which is another indicator of gut permeability to toxins. Inclusion of berberine in basal diet had no effect on TER values in the jejunum and the ileum. However, dietary antibiotics improved (P < 0.05) TER in ileum. Dietary berberine increased (P < 0.05) short circuit current (Isc, which is an indicator of nutrient absorptive capacity) in jejunum and ileum. However, dietary antibiotics did not affect Isc in jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, berberine was more effective than quercetin or AITC in inhibiting in vitro growth of E. coli. However, berberine did not affect gut health of weaned pigs when it was included in diets at 3% (the lowest concentration at which it inhibited in vitro growth of E. coli), which was likely due to the reduced ADFI by dietary berberine because ADFI negatively influence gut health. Dietary berberine at 0.05% improved intestinal nutrient absorptive of and ADG of weaned pigs without affecting ADFI, implying that berberine can improve growth performance of weaned pigs, and that the negative effects of berberine on feed intake of weaned pigs are alleviated when berberine is included in diets at low levels.

Description

Includes bibliographical references

Format

application/pdf

Number of Pages

109

Publisher

South Dakota State University

Rights

In Copyright - Educational Use Permitted
http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC-EDU/1.0/

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