Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences

First Advisor

Christopher C. L. Chase


Bovine herpesvirus type 1, Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Cytokine, Monocyte-derived dendritic cell


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) are important pathogens that affect cattle. In this in vitro study, the main goal was determining the direct effects of BVDV and BHV-1 infections of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) on cytokine mRNA expression. For the BVDV infected MDDC experiments, Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss calves were included with a breed comparison with cytokine expression. Surface marker expression was also measured in BHV-1-infected MDDCs. For both viruses, a high virulent strain (1373 for BVDV and Cooper for BHV-1) and lower virulent strains (20508 for BVDV and Los Angeles for BHV-1) were used. Ten cytokines: interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), interferon-beta (IFNbeta), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-1a (IL-1a), interleukin-1b (IL-1b), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were measured. BVDV infection of MDDCs down regulated all cytokine mRNA compared to the control. IL-1b had the greatest down regulation with more than a 40-fold decrease. The three IFN cytokines had less than a 2- fold decrease. The other IL cytokines had less than 10-fold decreases. Five cytokines expressed by BHV-1 infected MDDCs were down regulated. The IFN family were up regulated. IFN-alpha had greater than a 10-fold increase, IFN-beta had greater than a 3- fold increase, and IFN-gamma had less than a 1-fold increase. The other 5 IL cytokines were down regulated with less than a 4-fold decrease. For both BVDV and BHV-1, IFNalpha and IL-8 showed statistical significance between the two strains. There was a difference for the 2 BVDV strains for 2 cytokines: BVDV 1373 down regulated both IFN-Alpha and IL-8 more than 28508. BHV-1 Cooper strain up regulated IFN-Alpha and down regulated IL-8 as compared to the Los Angeles strain. For the breed comparison study with BVDV, Brown Swiss calves had higher MDDC yields than Holstein Friesian calves after MDDC preparation. Cytokine mRNA expression had a greater up regulation and less down regulation in Holstein Friesian calves. Finally, BHV- 1 infection of MDDC resulted in decreased MHCI, MHCII, and CD86 surface marker expression. Future studies will analyze the effect of infection on antigen presentation and stimulation of naïve T cells.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Bovine viral diarrhea virus.
Herpesvirus diseases in animals.
Cattle -- Virus diseases.
Dendritic cells.
Immune response.


Includes bibliographical references



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright