Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Jill L. Anderson


calf, condensed whey solubles, dairy, growth performance


A study was conducted for this thesis to evaluate the effectiveness of a new product’s ability to improve calf health and growth performance. In addition to the results from the study, this thesis also includes a literature review of immune and rumen maturation in calves and a discussion of ways to protect and encourage those fundamental progressions. For the main research project 48 dairy calves were used in a randomized complete block design study to evaluate the growth performance, rumen fermentation and metabolic profiles, nutrient utilization, and health scores when calves were supplemented Condensed Whey Solubles (CWS) with their starter pellets. The calves were enrolled in the study for twelve weeks. The CWS was offered with an aliquot of the daily starter pellets to encourage consumption of CWS and solid feed. The daily dosage of CWS was consistent, either none for control calves, 40 mL/d for CWSL calves or 80 mL/d for CWSH calves. The remainder of the daily starter pellet was fed after the aliquot was consumed and starter pellets were fed ad libitum. Supplementing CWS improved dry matter intake, increased withers and hip heights in the post weaning stage, and lowered body temperatures post weaning. Moreover, CWS improved fecal consistencies for CWSL calves in the post weaning stage. Supplementing CWS is an option for producers to improve growth and health while maintaining metabolic and rumen development.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Calves -- Feeding and feeds.
Dairy cattle -- Feeding and feeds.
Calves -- Growth.
Calves -- Nutrition.
Calves -- Metabolism.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright