Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department / School

Health and Nutritional Sciences

First Advisor

Bonny Specker


Pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are significant public health challenges in the United States. Pre-diabetes and T2D are a multi-factorial disease characterized by genetic or environmental factors or a combination of both. There has been an upward trend over time in the prevalence of both pre-diabetes and T2D. Few epidemiological studies exist regarding the effect of baseline glycemic status on changes in body composition, bone health, and lipid profiles. To fill this critical gap, the purpose of this research was to examine both cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in glycemic status with changes in body composition, bone mass and density, and lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in men aged 20 to 66 years. This dissertation uses data from the South Dakota Rural Bone Health Study, a population-based longitudinal study designed to investigate the impact of lifestyle factors on bone and body composition. Findings from this study provide insight into the adverse effect of changes in glycemic status on total and regional body composition and bone health. Creating prevention strategies targeted at individuals affected by, or at risk of, pre-diabetes and T2D, such as promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and weight loss may reverse the unfavorable effects of pre-diabetes and T2D.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Men -- Health and hygiene.
Body composition.
Bone densitometry.
Diabetes -- Prevention.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University

Included in

Nutrition Commons



Rights Statement

In Copyright