Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Padmanaban G Krishnan


Distiller Dried Grains (DDG), Glycemic Index, Glycemic Response, Instant Asain Noodles, Oat, Texture


The objective of this study was to develop Asian wheat noodle formulations enriched with oat flour and corn DDG at 10, 20 and 30 % wheat flour replacement levels and to evaluate the effects of this fiber and protein enrichment on the glycemic response of human subjects. We hypothesized that the addition of high-fiber oats and high-fiber, high-protein DDG will have synergistic effects in lowering the glycemic response in human subjects. In this study, steamed instant Asian noodles were prepared with DDG(D) and oats(OF) in combination with all-purpose wheat flour(W) in the following flour blends: (W:D) 90:10, (W:OF) 90:10, (W:D) 80:20, (W:OF) 80:20, (W:D:OF) 70:10:20 and (W:D:OF) 70:20:10 and control (100% W). The nutrient composition of each flour and type of noodle was determined. A series of 10 different glycemic test were conducted on each of the 7 different kinds of noodles and on a 50g glucose beverage. The control noodles were tested 3 times. Twelve, generally healthy, participants determined by a health screening, were recruited for glycemic testing. Noodles were served to participants in 50g of available carbohydrate sized portions after a 12 hour fast. Capillary blood glucose readings were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes using OneTouch Verio glucometers.Sensory testing using 4 different pair test and 4 different triangle tests on control noodle and (W:D) and (W:OF) in ratios of 90:10 and 80:20 noodles were examined using 20 untrained panelist. Sensory tests showed that participants preferred noodles containing oat fortified noodle over the control noodle. The sensory score indicated that oat noodles hold potential for further development and commercialization. Noodles fortified with DDG significantly increased the protein, fiber and total phenolics content and correspondingly lowered the calories and carbohydrate content. To a lesser degree, oat flour also increased the protein, fiber and total phenolics and lowered the calories and carbohydrates content of noodles. Noodles containing 70W:10D:20OF had the lowest glycemic index followed by the control. Noodles containing 20% DDG yielded the highest glycemic index. Overall, the fortified noodles, while reducing glycemic index relative to pure glucose significantly in subjects, did not reveal significant differences between noodle treatments and the all wheat control noodle.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Noodles -- Composition.
Enriched foods.
Glycemic index.
Distilling industries -- By-products.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright