Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Biology and Microbiology

First Advisor

Mark A. Messerli


Bovine, Bovine Digital Dermatitis, Chronic Wound, Inflammation, Inflammatory, Polysaccharide


Chronic wounds are longstanding dermal wounds that do not heal in a normal amount of time and can commonly last for over a year. These wounds plague humans and farm animals alike. Wounds are characterized by chronic inflammation and are often painful, difficult to heal, have a high recurrence rate, and are potentially debilitating. Long term wounds that do not fully heal are distressing for both humans and animals, but understandably more resources have been directed towards humans. Some treatment options for humans may be suitable for adaptation into the field of animal care. Chronic lesions such as bovine digital dermatitis (BDD), sole ulcers, and foot rot might be treated using proven techniques from human medicine. BDD is a chronic wound, characterized by poly-microbial infection of the hoof that is highly transmissible between cattle. BDD has been reported to greatly impact milk production in dairy herds, result in lameness, and require potentially costly preventative and/or treatment methods. Polysaccharide bandages, currently used to stop hemorrhaging in humans, serve as a potential treatment for chronic wounds. Oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC) and chitin or chitosan, are effective hemostatic bandages that are being explored to promote wound healing. These novel materials promote some beneficial effects in human wounds but our knowledge of their effects on other mammals is nearly non-existent. We have examined the innate immune response of bovine dermal cells to these polysaccharide hemostats. Polysaccharide materials were characterized with cross polarization-nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-NMR) prior to experimentation. The innate immune response of bovine fibroblasts was monitored by measuring mRNA expression of select cytokines and Toll-like receptors after exposure to ORC and chitin for 24 hours. The roles of ORC and chitin on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory response, and fibroblast viability were also determined The results demonstrated that both ORC and chitin elicit a relatively weak immune response from the fibroblasts, reduce expression of inflammatory cytokines in response to LPS, and do not increase mortality at the concentrations used. In conjunction with other previously characterized properties these polysaccharides may improve the healing of chronic epidermal wounds in humans and farm animals.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Cattle -- Diseases -- Treatment.
Wound healing.
Wounds and injuries -- Treatment.
Immune response.
Hoofs -- Diseases.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright