Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Jill Anderson


carinata meal, dairy cow, dairy heifer, growth performance, hydroponic barley sprouts, milk production


The purpose of this dissertation research was to examine alternative feed ingredients not typically found in dairy cattle diets. In total, four studies were conducted to evaluate feedstuffs such as hydroponic barley sprouts and carinata meal and how they affect cattle performance. To determine how feeding hydroponic barley sprouts would affect growing dairy heifer and lactating cow performance two feeding studies were conducted. In the first study, inclusion of 14 % (DM basis) hydroponic barley sprouts (HYD) was evaluated in an ad libitum total mixed ration (TMR) compared to a control (CON) diet on dairy heifer performance during a 12 wk randomized complete block design study using 24 growing heifers. Results indicated that replacing ground corn and some soybean meal with hydroponic fresh barley sprouts maintained rumen fermentation, metabolic profile and heifer body frame growth with slightly decreased gain: feed. To further evaluate barley sprouts 20 mid-lactation Holsteins were used in a 6 wk randomized complete block design study. Milk production, metabolic profile, rumen fermentation, and nutrient utilization were evaluated. The HYD treatment consisted of a typical mid-lactation TMR with 8 % (DM basis) hydroponic barley sprouts and the control (CON) had corn and soybean meal as major concentrates. Lactation performance was not affected by supplementing HYD and plasma cholesterol and digestion of dry matter and organic matter tended to be greater for the HYD cows. Hydroponic barley sprouts can replace a portion of the grain mix and maintain rumen fermentation and lactation performance. As hydroponic barley sprouts are not available for commercial purchase and must be grown by the dairy producer, efforts were refocused in evaluating carinata meal, a potential alternative protein source in the dairy industry in the third and fourth studies. Carinata meal (CRM) is a brassica oilseed that is newly developed in the United States. In study three, 10 % (DM basis) carinata meal was fed in dairy heifer diets for ad libitum consumption. A randomized complete block trial conducted with 24 heifers evaluated a control treatment (CON) and a 10 % CRM treatment. Feeding CRM decreased dry matter intake; however, growth was similar between treatments. Metabolic profile, thyroid hormone concentration, rumen fermentation and total tract digestion of nutrients were not affected by feeding CRM. Overall, CRM could potentially serve as an alternative protein source for growing dairy heifers. For the fourth study, the first lactation trial in the U.S. was conducted to determine effects of CRM. It was found that cows fed 10 % CRM maintained milk production, composition, and fatty acid profile comparable to the control (CON) diet using 10 % canola meal. Metabolic profile and rumen fermentation were not altered when CRM was fed in a lactating TMR, similarly, thyroid hormone concentration did not differ between treatments. Amino acid composition of treatment diets and plasma was evaluated, and no differences were found. Solvent extracted carinata meal is a viable protein source for the dairy industry, for use in both lactating cow and growing heifer diets.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Dairy cattle -- Feeding and feeds.
Barley as feed.
Oilseed plants.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University

Included in

Dairy Science Commons



Rights Statement

In Copyright