Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




The process of tissue culture has been in existence for several years and it has been carried out in a variety of ways (31). This study was made on the culture of carrot leaves (var. Danvers) with the use of various media and the auxin Tordon in an attempt to induce embryo formation in liquid culture. It is generally considered that Haberlandt in 1902, was the first person to introduce plant tissue culture. White (36) does not consider this to be the case, however. According to White, Haberlandt and the investigators that followed him, really cultured organs. He considers tissue culture to be the growth of isolated somatic cells in vitro. It is not the rearing of an already differentiated embryo which has been removed from its natural environment. Organ culture is important because of the way it has been carried out and the medium and other materials that have been developed. In organ culture the elements required for growth are essentially the same as those required to grow a whole plant. Water culturing of plants was the beginning of the development of the required elements for the culturing of plants, organs, and tissue (31). There have been various different types of media developed for the culturing of plants and plant parts. Fern primordia can be grown on a relatively simple medium (20). White (37) modified Uspenski' s medium for his own use for growing callus. White's medium has been used in the culture of liquid medium cultures (23, 1). Murashige et. al. (16) modified White's basic medium and they grew tobacco callus on the medium. In one instance they grew 35 grams of callus from 50 ml of medium and at that point they believed that the available water became limiting to the tissue's growth. Murashige and Skoog's medium produced the best growth in the culturing of Endive tissue (34). Sun (28) used both M'urashige and Skoog's and Hoagland's medium in the culture of carrot tissue. Heller's medium has also been used in tissue culture. Tobacco, sunflower and carrot callus have been cultured on Heller's basic medium (20, 19). Smithers and Sutcliffe found Heller's medium to be superior to White's in the culturing of carrot tissue (19).

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South Dakota State University