Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Physical Education


The purpose of this study was to survey physical education teachers who have taught under modular scheduling in order to determine whether or not differences exist between teachers' reactions of three strata (size of school studied) as they relate to the physical education teacher, the physical education program, and the organization of that program. The following areas were studied: (1) large-group instruction; (2) small-group discussion; (3) laboratory periods; (4) team teaching; (5) individual and independent study; and (6) teachers' opinions of techniques employed under modular scheduling. The following procedure was employed: Three hundred thirty questionnaires were sent to physical education teachers teaching under the Stanford School scheduling System. To achieve the purpose of this study, the areas as listed above were investigated. The information received from the respondents was placed in one of three school population strata. In order to test the agreement between the observed frequencies of the three strata, the statistical procedure Chi-Square was employed. The .01 level of significance was accepted; however, the .05 level of significance was also reported. As a result of the findings obtained during this investigation, the following major implications appear warranted: Some physical educators reported that their physical education program remained traditional even though their schools utilized the Stanford School Scheduling System. Teachers indicated that as school enrollment increased, team teaching was utilized to a greater extent. Physical educators with more than three years of teaching experience under modular scheduling are few in number. Smaller and intermediate schools have been operating under flexible scheduling for a longer period of time than the larger schools. The number of modules utilized for physical education for a respective day varies. The length in time of large-group instruction classes varies. Larger schools typically use a greater number of ·pupils in small-group discussion than do smaller schools. Small and intermediate schools agree that broad objectives of physical education programs are reached more easily under flexible scheduling than under traditional scheduling. Mixed reactions were expressed concerning whether students learn skills more easily under flexible scheduling. Respondents indicated that competition is employed in small-groups. The physical educator is typically the leader of small-group discussions. Intermediate and large schools generally never use students to supervise resource centers. The teachers indicated that students generally are allowed to choose laboratory activities. Physical educators often indicated that students are eager and are stimulated in laboratory periods.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Physical education and training -- Study and teaching (Secondary)
Schedules, School




South Dakota State University