Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor

Todd Letcher


Bolted Joint, Bolt Embedment, Bolt Resilience, Bolt Stiffness


Elastic resilience is the ratio of deformation over force an object experiences when under stress. Knowing the how much the bolt and clamped part deform under load is critical when determining fasteners for a bolted joint. VDI 2230 is the internationally recognized bolt sizing standard and contains the equations used to determine each of the bolted joint component’s resilience as well as values for embedment estimates based on component surface roughness. Embedment is the local plastic deformation due to uneven contact over the contact planes of a bolt-clamped interface (Bolt head to plate, plate to plate, plate to nut, and in the thread). Embedment that occurs after initial assembly causes losses in the preload force. This thesis devises the test methodology to experimentally determine bolt and clamped part resilience, compares each to VDI 2230, alternative methods, and FEA simulations using different contact methods. Ultimately, a testing practice to measure embedment is developed.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Bolted joints -- Testing.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright