Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School



In an address to his cabinet on August 25, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson announced a revolutionary system of planning and programming and budgeting throughout the Federal Government "• • • so that through the tools of modern management the full promise of a finer life can be every American at the lowest possible cost." The tools of modern management to which the former President referred are those employed within the Planning-ProgrammingBudgeting System (PPBS) process. Recently, in seeking solutions to urban problems, urban planners also have focused their attention on these tools of modern management. Amelioration of urban problems involves the allocation of limited resources among competing facilities and services within the boundary of a given entity. This allocation process has become increasingly complex--with complexity of a two-fold nature. First, the difficulties encountered by cities in financing the rising demand for public facilities and services have highlighted the area of fiscal policy. Second, a shift in emphasis from private services to public services has required additional managerial capability. Managerial capability, then, is a basic factor involved in the functioning of urban governments. Systems concepts have been applied in management as a means of extending managerial capability. Cleland and King state: The systems concept or viewpoint is a simple recognition that any organization is a system made up of segments, each of which has its own goals. The manager realizes -that he can achieve the overall goals of the organization only by viewing the entire system and seeking to understand and measure the interrelationships and to integrate them in a fashion which enables the organization to effectively pursue its goals. By using the systems approach as a base, this study proposes descriptive models to assist the urban planner to more effectively allocate resources. The primary model will utilize Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) and the Critical Path Method (CPM).

Library of Congress Subject Headings

City planning

South Dakota State University Theses



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University