Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Physical Education


It is well known that many American people are physically unfit and that this "unfitness” is due largely to the inactivity of the average American. College women have not been exempt from the trap of physical unfitness as excess fat deposits on the thighs, hips, waist and upper arms seem to be prevalent on the "Average College Miss." Unfortunately, there is no way to lose excess adipose tissue or inches either quickly or easily, even though large sums of money are spent annually on gimmick sand gadgets proposed to accomplish such purposes. Two primary variables that control fat accumulation are food intake and exercise. Exercise programs which have been recommended to promote reduction in weight excess adipose tissue, and increase general physical fitness, while numerous, are controversial. Cooper, however, found in his studies that swimming and running are two excellent means for improving cardio-respiratory efficiency and physical fitness. Running and swimming have also been found to expend more calories than other forms of physical activity. Isometric exercises have also been found to be an effective method to increase strength and develop muscle tone. Since strength and well toned muscles are a part of physical fitness, an isometric exercise program can be said to improve physical fitness. However, such a program does not materially increase cardio-respiratory efficiency. Another method to increase strength and develop muscle tone is an isotonic exercise program. Different training programs stress varying numbers of sets and repetitions for the same isotonic exercise. Definite benefits of progressive isotonic training for girls, as stated by Leighton, are the reapportioning of one's measurements, firming-up slack or loose portions of the body, strengthen weak areas, and improving general body condition. Improvement of cardio-respiratory efficiency through an isotonic program has not yet been established through research. The writer, as a teacher of physical education and interested in physical fitness, wished to determine if jogging, swimming, isometrics and two different isotonic training programs would reduce weight, percent body fat, and improve cardio-respiratory efficiency of college women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of five different training programs on weight, percent body fat, and cardio-respiratory efficiency of college women. The five training programs conducted were: jogging, swimming, isometrics, isotonics with low weights and high repetitions, and isotonics with high weights and low repetitions.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Physical fitness

Physical education for women

South Dakota State University Theses



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University