Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Civil Engineering


The Water Quality Act of 1965, in essence, required each state to adopt quality standards for interstate water. Therefore, in February 1967, the State of South Dakota adopted water quality standards considering existing and potential beneficial uses and protection of the public health. Concern for the health of the public predicated the inclusion of bacterial limits as a portion of these standards. Lagooning of wastewater, which has been widely employed in sparsely populated areas of the Midwest because of the low land costs and ease of operation, has been considered to provide sufficient treatment in order that the quality of the surface water in the receiving streams would meet established standards. However, the hygienic safety of lagoon effluents has recently been questioned. Because of the widespread use of lagooning as a waste water treatment method in South Dakota and because of the concern for the protection of the surface waters within the state, the Civil Engineering Department of South Dakota State University believed that a study of bacterial quality of lagoon effluents, as related to the "Water Quality Standards for the Surface Waters of South Dakota", would be of benefit to indicate if control was needed in order that the lagoon effluents would meet the quality criteria. Th e proximity of the Big Sioux River Basin to University facilities prompted the selection of a portion of the basin as the area for the investigation. The primary objectives of these investigations were to determine past compliance, and to estimate future compliance with water quality standards, for streams receiving discharge from lagoons, as pertains to bacteria criteria. In addition, preliminary information was obtained regarding the use of chlorination as a means of assuring that lagoon effluents conform to established guidelines for bacterial densities.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Water -- Pollution -- South Dakota

Sewage lagoons -- South Dakota

Big Sioux River (S.D.)

South Dakota State University Theses



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University