Author

Peter Chapman

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date

1980

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department

Physical Education

First Advisor

Barry C. McKeown

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a stretching program using P.N.F. (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) techniques on the South Dakota State University football team during the 1997 football season. The following hypotheses were investigated: 1) It was hypothesized there would be no significant mean differences in flexibility measures among pre-, post-, and 5-week retention test values of the sit and reach, groin, and shoulder tests. 2) It was hypothesized there would be no significant mean differences in flexibility measures among pre-, post-, 15-minute, and 30-minute test values of the sit and reach, groin, and shoulder tests. There have been two leading types of stretching exercises used in physical education and athletics—stretching and ballistic stretching. Ballistic stretching, referred to as fast stretch, involves repetitive rebound movements which are aimed toward a gradual progressive increase of flexibility. Static stretch, referred to as slow stretch, involves the use of held stretch position which may or may not be repeated. With static stretching, ballistic stretching, and the combination of the two, evidence has been presented that all three have improved flexibility. Some believe that increased flexibility prevents injuries; however, there is little documentation to support this belief. Opinions abound in the literature reviewed concerning injury and flexibility. Three studies which have investigated the effects of flexibility upon injury have presented conflicting conclusions. Powell stated that sprains and strains were reported to be the general injury in fall football practices at Big Ten schools, hamstring strain being the predominant injury. A three-day conditioning period may not be adequate for preparing the football player for the season. Powell emphasized that flexibility as well as strength and endurance should be included in a pre-season program. A supporting conclusion was reached I another football related study that there was an increased incidence in muscle tears in less flexible members of a professional football team (Nicholas). In contrast, Jackson presented results that indicated that flexibility was not a predictor of injury. In the investigations of flexibility previously done, only one, Sigerseth, dealt with flexibility as it related to football players. Neither of the studies of P.N.F. techniques increase flexibility, but little is known about changes in flexibility that will occur if these techniques are performed by football players during their competitive season. If stretching programs administered during practice sessions do not significantly change the football player’s flexibility, then alternative programs must be examined and subsequent changes made based on findings.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Football players
Muscles
Joints -- Range of Motion
Stretch (Physiology)

Format

application/pdf

Number of Pages

84

Publisher

South Dakota State University

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