Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Civil Engineering

First Advisor

Dwayne A. Rollag


The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) established water quality standards in 1946 and revised them in 1956 and 1962. In these standards the maximum recommended concentrations of iron and manganese were 0.03 and 0.05 mg/l respectively. Because trace amounts of these elements are essential for proper nutrition of both plants and animals, the recommended limits are not based on any physiological or environmental considerations. Rather, the presence of iron and manganese in water is objectional because the precipitation of these metals alters the appearance of the water, turning it a turbid yellow brown to black. The Brookings, South Dakota East Water Treatment Plant is primarily an iron and manganese removal plant. Present operation of the facility includes aeration, lime softening, alum coagulation, re-carbonation, potassium permanganate oxidation, filtration, chlorination and fluoridation. Iron and manganese in the plant effluent are within the USPHS recommended standards. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if comparable iron and manganese removal can be achieved using only aeration, potassium permanganate oxidation and filtration. In this investigation, removal efficiencies and water stability were used as parameters of comparison. A pilot unit was used in these investigations to avoid disruption of the East Plant operations. This pilot unit was included the same units and filter media as the East Plant and was operated at the same detention times and filter rates. Both the East Plant and pilot unit received raw water from Well 1.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Water -- Purification -- Filtration
Water Purification -- Oxidation
Water -- Aeration
Potassium permanganate.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University