Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Biology and Microbiology

First Advisor

Robert M. Pengra

Second Advisor

T. Ross Wilkerson


The serological characterization of Listeria monocytogenes apparently began with the work by Seastone, who determined that a close serological relationship existed between cultures collected from humans and animals. Schultz et al. and Julianelle et al. later suggested that two serological types existed that could be connected to the origin of the strain. These initial studies were expanded by the work of Paterson, who studied the antigenic structure of Listeria monocytogenes using agglutination and adsorption techniques. Paterson studied somatic and flagellar antigens. The somatic antigens were prepared by growing bacteria on 1% glucose agar at 37°C for 18 h, removed with and suspended in sterile saline. The flagella were destroyed by heating the suspension to 100°C and maintaining this temperature for two hours. Bacteria to be used with intact flagellar antigens were grown in a 1% glucose broth at 25°C for 18 h, after which time the cells were formalin killed. These suspensions were used for the inoculation of the rabbits, tube agglutinations, and reciprocal adsorptions. Paterson divided the genus Listeria into four different serotypes on the basis of their flagellar and somatic antigens. Serotypes 1, 3, and 4 were differentiated on the basis of their somatic antigens; and serotype 2 was differentiated by its flagellar antigens. Paterson's antigenic scheme of Listeria has survived numerous tests and exists in an expanded form with the additions made by Seeliger and Donker-Voet. Serotypes 1 and 4 are the predominant isolates recovered from susceptible vertebrates. These are further divided on the basis of clinical manifestations of the following four animal groups: ruminants, monogastric animals, fowl, and humans. Either localized encephalitis or meningoencephalitis is a characteristic feature of infection in ruminants, while the typical manifestation in monogastric animals is septicemia accompanied by hepatic necrosis. Septicemia is also a characteristic feature of infection in fowl, but in this group, it is associated with myocardial degeneration. Septicemia with associated meningitis or meningoencephalitis is associated with septicemia in human infections. Abortions and other perinatal infections can occur in all mammals, including humans. Clinical manifestations are not effected by the changing pattern of predominance among the two prevalent serotypes 1 and 4.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Bacteria -- Physiology
Listeria monocytogenes



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


No Copyright - United State