Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Civil Engineering

First Advisor

Dwayne A. Rollag


The water supply for the City of Brookings is treated by water treatment plants located on the north and on the east side of town. The east water treatment plant is supplied by three wells and has a maximum design capacity of 4 mgd (15,140 m3/day). Designed for iron and manganese removal, partial softening, stability control, and disinfection, the plant includes the following processes: aeration, lime softening, alum coagulation, recarbonation, potassium permanganate oxidation, polyphosphate treatment, filtration, chlorination, and fluoridation. The east plant is producing a stable water based on the Langlier Saturation Index. USPHS recommended limitations for iron and manganese also are being met. However, in an attempt to reduce chemical costs, Quail performed a pilot study at the east plant to prove whether or not the desired treatment could be achieved using only aeration, potassium permanganate oxidation, and filtration. The study indicated the treatment scheme could not produce a water meeting the recommended limits for manganese. Additional pilot work was recommended. Reported herein are the results of a manganese greensand pilot study which supplements the work performed by Quail. In this study, the treatment scheme used by Quail was modified by replacing the No. 1 anthrafilt coal with manganese greensand. The research objectives of this study were to: (1) determine whether or not the water quality requirement, in terms of manganese, could be met using e manganese greensand; (2) determine whether greensand filtration is economically practicable; and (3) determine any similarities between the operation of greensand filtration beds and activated carbon filtration beds.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Water -- Purification -- Filtration
Water -- Purification -- Iron removal
Water -- Purification -- Manganese



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


No Copyright - United State