Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Plant Science

First Advisor

Dale L. Reeves


South Dakota has been one of the top two states in oat production over the past five years. During this time South Dakota’s average production was 12,914,036 quintals (88,784,000) bushels. The eastern one-fourth of the state and western Minnesota as well are known for the production of good quality and high test weight oats. Because of the high production in this region, much of the oats is marketed for a premium to millers and racehorse feed packers. It is estimated 10-15% of the total production in South Dakota is used for these two industries. Oats delivered to the elevator containing live insects can lose this premium because of their mere presence, The Food and Drug Administration ruled that grain is unfit for human consumption if it contains two percent insect damaged kernels. Oats can be graded weevily if it contains (a) two or more live weevils per representative lot, (b) 15 or more other live insects injurious to stored grain, including Angoumois moths (Grain Inspection Handbook 1980). In a survey of 360 elevators, 75% of the elevators are now applying a 0.2-2.9¢/quintal (1-20¢/bushel) discount for insect presence in all grains. The average discount was 0,8¢/quintal (5.2¢/ bushel) (Grain Quality Newsletter 1982). This agrees with a 100-elevator unpublished survey done by myself prior to the sampling of the oat bins. Seventy-seven percent of the elevators discounted for insects specifically in oats with a range of 0.2-3.6¢/quintal (1-25¢/bushel) and an average discount of 0.6¢/quintal (3.8¢/bushel). Milling premiums for the elevator operator were 0.4¢-.3.6¢/quintal (3-25¢/bushel) and an average of 1.7¢ (11.6¢). It has been also estimated that the farmer premium could be as high as 1.5¢/quintal (10¢/bushel), Most buyers of premium oats have indicated they refuse any oats containing live insects. The objectives of this research project were to (1) identify the major stored grain insects that infest stored oats in South Dakota, (2) to calculate insect densities over the main storage period, (3) to identify the factors that contribute to insect infestations in stored oats, and (4) to gather information that would provide for better recommendations on how to reduce insect infestations.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Oats -- Storage -- Diseases and injuries
Oats -- South Dakota



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


No Copyright - United State