Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




The primary objective of this study is to identify, analyze, and explain existing and potential patterns of agricultural development in Jordan as they relate to the country's environmental resource base. Once established, an understanding of the intricate relationships that exist between environment and agriculture can enhance agricultural development planning and increase Jordan's agricultural potential. Analysis of the variable patterns of the man (culture) and land (environment) relationship long has been a primary focus of geographic, study. This study is limited to those relationships which exist between agriculture in Jordan and those environmental elements which directly influence this vital aspect of the country's economy, namely climate, soil, water, and vegetation. In attempting to develop a comprehensive overview of Jordan's agriculture-environment relationship patterns, this study will focus/address four major factors. They are: 1) a survey of existing agricultural patterns in relation to environmental conditions, 2) an examination of both the environmental and technical problems which hinder agricultural development, 3) identifying potential means of expanding agricultural lands, and 4) to suggest means by which agricultural production can be increased . Agriculture has been the primary occupation of Jordanian people for centuries. Agricultural production is dependent upon· numerous factors, including climate, soil type, plant and animal genetics, insects, disease, and such cultural considerations as technology, capital, perceptions of the environment, traditional crops and farming practices, available land, and economic needs. Although Jordan can never be self-sufficient in all of its agricultural needs, production can be increased by adopting modern farming methods such as machinery and the use of fertilizers and chemicals. The non-irrigated agricultural areas are more affected by the variation of rain totals than are the irrigated areas. An increase in agricultural production can be achieved by expanding the arable area and with the use of new technology. The Jordan Valley is the main agricultural area in Jordan because of its climate, soil, topography and the availability of water. By using modern agricultural methods in irrigated as well as in non-irrigated areas, Jordan is pinning its hopes of increasing agricultural productivity 300 percent by the 1980s.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Crops and climate -- Jordan

Agriculture -- Jordan

Jordan -- Climate

South Dakota State University Theses



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University