Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School


First Advisor

Fred R. Seymour


The objectives of this thesis are both the further development of a method for the analysis of free sugars in plant tissues, and also the application of this method to tissues from vascular plants. The applied methodology is often referred to as the PAAN and/or PAKO procedure, an acronym for peracetylated aldononitrile and /or peracetylated ketooxime derivatives. The two-step derivatization procedure (oxime formation followed by peracetylation) will also convert polyols and non-reducing sugars to their corresponding peracetylated compounds. During the past decade there has been extensive application of this procedure, and also development of various aspects of the approach. A recent master’s thesis from SDSU, that of Stacy L. Unruh investigated both conditions for free sugars in plant tissues, and also reviewed the literature in this area. The following literature review was completed during the summer of 1986; it is based on Unruh's literature search and emphasizes developments during the 1981-1986 period. Well defined conditions of the principle free (D-fructose, and sucrose) found in plant tissues were a major contribution of Unruh's study. (To simplify the following discussion, the polyol, sorbitol is referred to as a "sugar"). The developmental objectives of this study are as follows. Firstly, to further investigate the methodology of Unruh for the analyses of sugars. Secondly, to employ digital intergration referenced to an internal standard for quantitation. Thirdly, to precisely establish the detector responses for the major free sugars present in plant tissues. Fourthly, to extend the PAAN/PAKO method (in terms of gas chromatographic, GC, and mass spectral, MS, analyses) to complex glycosides and disaccharides. The application objective has been to use the PAAN/PAKO procedures to analyze tissue from vascular plants, especially material from -stems and leaves material which had resisted the procedure developed by Unruh. Preliminary reports of these studies have been presented at the Midwest Regional meetings of the American Chemical Society in 1984 at Springfield, Mo., and in 1985 at Carbondale, IL.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Plants -- Analysis
Plant cells and tissues -- Analysis
Gas chromatography
Mass spectrometry



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


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