Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Physical Education

First Advisor

James E. Lidstone


The purpose of this investigation was to observe the similarities/differences among music, white noise, and no music on total treadmill time, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and time estimation error (TEE). 22 female intercollegiate athletes participated in the study which required them to run with stereo headphones under the conditions of music, white noise, and no music. Treatments were randomly assigned. The intervals when TEE data were gathered were randomly determined as well. RPE was given every 5 minutes. Each subject ran at her individualized treadmill speed which was determined from a one-mile run performed prior to data collection. Each subject was tested under all 3 conditions. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) on total treadmill time revealed a significant difference (p < .05) between the music and no music conditions. No significant differences were observed, however, between music and white noise or between white noise and no music. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) on RPE scores revealed no significant difference among treatments at the various RPE intervals. Likewise, MANOVA indicated no significant differences among groups with respect to time estimation error (TEE).

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Music in physical education
Music -- Physiological effect



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


No Copyright - United State