Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Civil Engineering

First Advisor

James N. Dornbush


The first community in South Dakota to construct and operate an infiltration-percolation (1/P) system was the City of Madison. The present wastewater facility consists pretreatment (aerated grit chamber), primary clarification (circular clarifier), aeration basin (oxidation ditch), final clarification (circular clarifier), 27-acre storage basin, infiltration basins, and anaerobic digestion. Construction of the 1/P system took place during 1983. The system consists of 4 cell, each 3.6 acres. The site was stripped and leveled, 12 inches of topsoil were laid back over the exposed gravel areas, and dikes capable of containing 5 feet of liquid depth were constructed. A new lift station was constructed to pump from the lagoon to the 1/P cells. Six new 4-inch monitoring wells were installed adjacent to the 1/P site. The 1/P system was put online during October 1983. South Dakota Department of Water and Natural Resources required that the 1/P basins produce an effluent that would not exceed the EPA primary drinking water standards which includes a limit of 10 mg/1 for nitrate nitrogen. Also the Department of Water and Natural Resources required that a system of groundwater monitoring wells be constructed and monitored on a monthly/quarterly basis by the City of Madison. The available results of this monitoring indicate that following questions remain as follows; 1. How does the 1/P system affect the surrounding groundwater? 2. What other factors affect the groundwater quality at the 1/P basins? 3. How can the 1/P basins be operated in a manner that will optimize the treatment and removal of nitrate? To resolve the above questions, it was proposed to; 1. Complete a review of the data and information which was available and determine what additional data and information is needed, 2. Evaluate the existing data by means of graphical correlations, plots and other relationships with computer applications of water levels and quality data at the wells, and 3. Determine what factors other than the Madison 1/P basins may be adversely affecting the monitoring results of the Madison groundwater monitoring wells.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Sewage disposal plants -- South Dakota -- Madison

Water quality management -- South Dakota -- Madison

Groundwater -- South Dakota -- Madison -- Quality



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University