Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Animal Science

First Advisor

John R. Romans


Alteration of the inherent characteristics of less preferred beef carcass portions to produce products with greater consumer appeal has been the ultimate goal of structured meat research. Consumer acceptance of structured products has been limited because of (1) low retail visibility, (2) diet/health concerns due to salt addition, and (3) undesirable uncooked product appearance due to discoloration and lack of fiber orientation. Development of solid-muscle structured products would alleviate these limitations and the negative influence the less desirable carcass portions have on total carcass value. Efficacy of a binding gel containing various concentrations of algin/calcium (Alg/Ca) and adipic acid (Ad) that will function between large meat pieces in both raw, refrigerated and cooked states was determined. Results indicated large muscle pieces could be bound by Alg/Ca/Ad gels in both states. Optimum levels could not be recommended since juncture success and binding strength were maximized at the highest Alg/Ca levels and Ad levels used had no effect on these two traits. In the second phase, consumer acceptability of four ty pes of beef steaks fabricated from various muscles in the forequarter were measured. Steak types included (1) ribeye roll steaks, (2) serratus ventralis solid-muscle structured steaks, (3) salt/phosphate comminuted structured steaks, and (4) algin /calcium comminuted structured steaks. Primary meat purchasers rated each type of uncooked steak on fat content, surface discoloration, color and overall desirabi1ity. Each household member over 5 years old completed a sensory evaluation, rating each steak type for tenderness, juiciness, flavor desirability and overall desirability. Laboratory evaluations included proximate analyses, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear and oxidative rancidity after frozen storage. Consumer sensory acceptability was evident for all four steak types, but primary meat purchasers preferred the color, lack of surface discoloration and overall appearance of intact muscle steaks over comminuted structured steaks. Intact muscle steaks received lower sensory tenderness ratings and higher flavor desirability scores than comminuted structured steaks. Viable merchandising options for the beef forequarter, particularly the chuck, are available with new structuring technology.

Library of Congress Subject Headings


Meat cuts



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University