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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Animal Science

First Advisor

Robbi H. Pritchard


Early killing frosts can occur in the soybean production areas of the north central United States and Southern Canada. Early freezing causes physiological changes in the soybean that renders it useless for oil production and increases rancidity during storage. As a result, frost damaged immature soybeans (FDIS) have diminished market value. If FDIS could be incorporated in ruminant diets, soybean producers would have an alternative marketing avenue for their damaged soybean crop while providing the livestock producer a high protein, high energy feedstuff. Raw soybean feeding is not practiced in swine and poultry production because of antinutritional factors. Conflicting work exists on the effect of raw soybean antinutritional factors upon ruminant digestion. High oil content of FDIS could cause a reduction in digestibility of dietary components in ruminant diets. Studies have indicated differential responses due to raw soybean feeding on digestibilities of feed components, growth rate and feed efficiency of cattle and sheep when differing basal diets are utilized. Effects of soybean oil versus antinutritional factors on ruminant digestion are poorly differentiated. The objectives of this research were to characterize compositional differences between FDIS and raw mature soybeans and the effects of FDIS on ruminal fermentation with varying substrates. Differentiation of soybean oil and antinutritional factor effects on in vivo ruminant digestion and absorption of nutrients were also evaluated.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Soybean as feed

Ruminations -- Feeding and feeds

Soybean -- Growth



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University