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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Physical Education

First Advisor

Jack Ewing


One of the major limiting factors in aerobic performance is the delivery of oxygen to the exercising muscle by the blood. However, when the blood returns to the lungs from the muscles, it is still approximately 60% saturated with oxygen. If the level of oxygen left at the muscle could be raised, it would have the effect of raising the delivery of oxygen to the muscle. The amount of oxygen unloaded at the muscle can be increased through increasing the level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in the blood, in that 2,3-DPG competes with oxygen for the binding sites on the hemoglobin molecule. What has never been conclusively shown yet is if oral phosphate loading can significantly affect the delivery of oxygen to the muscle through this effect. 17 highly trained distance runners were tested for V02 max' given either a placebo or phosphate (28.5 mEq four times per 24 hours for 60 hours), and then tested for V02 max again in a standard double-blind, cross-over protocol. Following a minimum washout period of six weeks, the cross-over portion of the study took place. There were no significant differences (p < 0.05) found in V02 Max, VE@ V02 Max, HRMax, body weight, or RERMax of highly trained intercollegiate cross-country runners as the result of either the phosphate load or the placebo load. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral phosphate loading on the maximal oxygen uptake of highly trained distance runners. More specifically, this study examined the effect of a phosphate load and a placebo load on V02 Max of intercollegiate cross-country runners utilizing a double-blind cross-over design.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Phosphates -- Physiological effect

Muscles -- Physiology

Oxygen -- Physiological transport

Runners (Sports) -- Physiology



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University