Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School



The importance of studying manganese involves its essentiality as a nutrient and its antagonism and interrelations with other essential dietary components. Manganese was first shown to be essentia1 for plant growth by McHargue. Weinberg found that bacteria require manganese for growth, for culture longevity, and to synthesize antibiotics, bacteriophage, protective antigens, several enzymes and endospores. No other metal would satisfy this requirement. Underwood stated that manganese was essential to poultry to prevent perosis and nutritional chondrodystrophy. It was necessary in mammals for normal growth and reproductive function. Specific biochemical roles for manganese have been found. Pyruvate carboxylase activity has been shown to depend upon manganese. Leach and Muenster demonstrated its essentiality in mucopolysaccharide synthesis. Everson and Shrader disclosed that manganese had a role in glucose utilization. Manganese has been found bound within erythrocytes and was thought to have a role in porphyrin metabolism. High dietary intake of manganese interferes with hemoglobin formation. Effects of manganese deficiency on developing fetuses have been well documented. However, effects of high maternal manganese levels altering fetal erythropoiesis have not been reported. Underwood stressed the significance of the dietary manganese: iron ratio. Sato and Murata have shown that colostrum milk contains much more manganese than does normal milk, the first sample after parturition being especially high. These findings raise the question of manganese importance in fetal development, especially in erythropoiesis where iron is known to be of importance. The objectives of this study are as follows: a. to determine whether manganese is transported across the placenta against a concentration gradient as is iron; b. to ascertain if high maternal blood manganese levels affect fetal erythropoiesis; c. to observe leukocyte formation alteration; d. to investigate whether fetal organogenesis is affected.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Manganese -- Physiological effect
Rabbits -- Feeding and feeds
Iron -- Physiological effect



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University