Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School



Ammonia toxicosis is known to be a problem of nonprotein nitrogen or urea feeding in ruminant animals. Urea is hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract in the presence of bacterial urease to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Diffusion of ammonia into the circulatory system normally causes no problems since the ammonia is converted into urea by the liver. The harmful effects arise when ammonia concentrations are excessive, normal detoxication processes become impaired, or ammonia is introduced too rapidly. Investigators have concerned themselves with metabolic alterations and cellular activity resulting from ammonia intoxication. The economic advantages of feeding urea to ruminants and the toxic effects due to hydrolytic release of ammonia provide compelling reasons for obtaining accurate knowledge of varied ammonia concentrations in fetal and maternal tissues. Information concerning tissue ammonia concentration is meager, especially concerning fetal tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonium nitrogen concentration of fetal tissues and blood following ammonia intoxication of the dam.

Library of Congress Subject Headings


Ammonia -- Physiologicat effect

Urea as feed



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University