Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Counseling and Human Development


The general thesis underlying this study is that a student's absolute change between expectations and perceptions of a college environment is related to his performance and sex. Two null hypotheses were generated. The hypotheses as related to the methodology and the CCI instrument of the study were: 1. There are no significant differences in the freshman change or C-score on the basis of sex of the student. 2. There are no significant differences in the freshman change or C-score on the basis of grade point average grouping. The population was divided into three groups with male and female subdivided within each group’s high performers, average performers and low performers. The expectations and later perceptions of the South Dakota State University environment by the population of freshman ·was measured using the CCI with modified instructions, In order to investigate the relationships among change scores, it was necessary to group the data into mean scores for 11 definable factor change scores. The objectives were not to identify specific expectations-perceptions changes as they are related to academic achievement. Instead. the extent to which these factors are associated with academic achievement was determined. This study was divided into two types of research: (1) replicating previous related research with some improved methodological considerations, and, (2) exploratory, through the use of a change score to measure the degree of expectation and perception change that had occurred in freshman students and a concomitant observation of the relationship of this change to the students' academic performance at South Dakota State University. The change score is a measure that has not been utilized in the original and subsequent use of the CCI. However, 1:C research on the impact of college experiences on the student is discussed in terms of changes or differences, i.e. comparing mean scores, standard deviations and their statistical derivatives, then change should be more exactly defined, For example, the C-score will generate the actual absolute number of changes that have occurred using 300 questions of the CCI as the entire measure of the student's expectations and perceptions. If, 1n a retest experience, one student's responses to 100 questions about the university environment changed, it can be reported that 33 1/3 percent of the student's expectations have changed after one semester.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

College environment.
Education, Higher.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University