Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School



When hemagglutination is caused by the virus particle itself, a particle joins two red blood cells together by forming a bridge between them. If sufficient hemagglutination particles are present, the red cells form clusters of larger aggregates which fall to the bottom of the test tube or well. It is this sort of biophysical phenomenon which is being investigated in this study. Rather than using red blood cells as the adsorbent, to the surface of which the virus adsorbs, some solid adsorbents have been utilized to substitute for the red cells in a variety of experimental manipulations. Bentonite has been used as an adsorbent of rabbit immunoglobulin G to bovine globulin (EGG), to the 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) group, and to human serum albumin (HSA). Adsorption of antigen ovalbumin to glass beads has been accomplished and Gyenes et al. and Yagi et al. have used polyaminopolystyrene on to which has been adsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA). In addition, charcoal particles have recently been used as an antigen adsorbent for a flocculation test used in syphilis serology. Bentonite has also been used as an adsorbent of light polypeptide chains. Similarly, Pasteurella tularensis has been cross linked with tetraazotized benzidine and employed for the isolation of purified specific antibodies. Latex particles have grown in popularity during the last twenty years as one component of serology testing and immunochemistry probably because of their relatively inexpensive cost, hut more likely, because of the excellent results afforded this carrier or a variety of substances. The classical use of latex as an adsorbent material was that of Singer and Plotz who developed a latex fixation test to detect rheUl1latoid arthritis factor in blood serum. Subsequently a slide latex fixation test or eosin slide test was devised. In both cases, polystyrene latex spheres were sensitized with human gamma globulin and reacted with either serum or blood of an individual. Agglutination of the latex suspension indicated the occurrence of the antigen-antibody reaction, and thus the presence of rheumatoid factor in the patient's blood or serum. Other work with rheumatoid factor and gamma globulin in coated latex was performed by Bernhard et al.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Virology-- Research



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University