Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

First Advisor

John McMaine


Bioretention cell/Rain garden, Discharge equation, Flume, Low impact development (LID), PCSWMM, Stormwater management


Urbanization increases impervious surface area, which changes the hydrology of a watershed. Impervious surfaces prevent the infiltration of stormwater water into the ground surface which results in a higher volume of stormwater runoff and higher peak flow. Low Impact Development (LID) practices help to restore pre-development hydrology by increasing infiltration, evaporation, and transpiration. While the hydrologic performance of LID practices has been studied extensively and continues to be an area of active research, there has been very limited monitoring or demonstration of LID practices in South Dakota. In addition, municipalities in South Dakota and elsewhere that implement new LID practices often do not monitor them, in part due to the high costs associated with monitoring. In this study, an effective and affordable flow measurement device was developed to monitor flow. Flumes are widely used for measuring flow but can be expensive for widespread monitoring. Using 3D printing technology to produce flumes is very cost-effective, but no discharge equations have been developed for 3D printed flumes and printing consistency and variability has not been validated. So, a laboratory-scale setup was used in this study to develop and validate discharge equations for 3D printed flumes. The result showed that the discharge equations were consistent with the same type of flumes despite the different printing materials. Based on the results, two discharge equations were developed for 3D printed 0.122 m HS flume and 0.102 m Palmer-Bowlus flume. Furthermore, the effectiveness of LID practices in South Dakota as stormwater management was also evaluated in this study through a field scale study and hydrologic-hydraulic modeling. For the field study, a rain garden was designed and constructed in Sioux Falls, SD and was monitored to quantify the hydrologic performance of the rain garden. The results indicated that the rain garden had a high capacity to capture and infiltrate runoff. For modeling, Personalized Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM) was used to develop the hydrologic-hydraulic model to assess the performance of low impact development at a neighborhood scale. Different scenarios of various amounts of public and private LID practices were used to determine runoff volume and peak flow reduction under different storm events. The results showed that all the LID practice scenarios were effective in reducing runoff volume and peak flow, and the percentage of reduction rate depends on the implementation level of LID practices. The results also indicated that the LID scenarios were more efficient in reducing runoff during small storm events. This study provides a solution for relatively low-cost hydrologic monitoring of LID practices and gives an insight into the hydrologic performances of LID practices in South Dakota. The findings of this study can help in decision-making for the wide-scale implementation of LID practices in South Dakota.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Urban runoff -- South Dakota -- Management.
Sustainable urban development -- South Dakota.
Stormwater infiltration -- South Dakota -- Management.
Water quality management -- South Dakota.
Hydrologic models.



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright