Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department / School



Percent Fraction 1 protein, total soluble protein, and the lipoproteins of birdsfoot trefoil, white clover, and four varieties of alfalfa (Teton, travois, vernal, ladak) were investigated in relation to ruminant bloat using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The plants were grown in a growth chamber under two daylengths and harvested at the bloom, bud and prebud stages of growth. No statistical difference in percent fraction 1 protein, measured as a percentage of the total soluble protein, could be detected among birdsfoot trefoil and three varieties of alfalfa. Both birdsfoot trefoil and teton alfalfa were significantly lower in percent Fraction 1 protein than vernal alfalfa and white clover. Minor differences in percent Fraction 1 protein due to daylength or stage or growth and their interactions do not appear sufficiently large to be a primary factor in the etiology of bloat. Statistically significant differences in the amount of total soluble protein were shown among varieties or species. Both teton alfalfa and white clover were significantly lower than vernal alfalfa. Birdsfoot trefoil was significantly lower than all other species. Each species, variety, and clone tested showed a qualitatively different, dark staining, lipoprotein pattern with the exception of birdsfoot trefoil. These staining patterns were not affected by the stage of growth nor by the length of day. Definite quantitative differences were observed among six clones of vernal alfalfa. A possible relationship between the amount of lipoproteins in legumes and the etiology of bloat is discussed.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Bloat in animals



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University