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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Animal Science

First Advisor

Robbi H. Pritchard


The cattle industry is challenged to capitalize on the potential use of forage crop residues and by - products (Koch and Algeo, 1983). Clanton et al. (1977) , indicated that low quality forages provide sufficient energy for maintaining mature cattle. Byerly (1975), stated that the life cycle of ruminant diets consists of 80 to 85% forage feed resources, with 15 to 20% being from concentrates. Utilization of low quality forages and protein by-products in concert, may provide the competitive edge needed by the cattle industry. Low quality forages are frequently deficient in one or more nutrients that limit forage utilization and animal performance. Therefore, supplementation programs are implimented [sic] to correct for nutrient imbalances. Webster (1978) defines supplement as meaning "added part". This does not imply replacement or substitution of dietary nutrients, but rather correction in deficient required nutrients. Forage fiber content limits rumen turnover and total nutrients utilized. It is therefore necessary to provide supplemental protein which will enhance feed intake and digestibility and be utilized efficiently. High protein supplements have resulted in improved feed intake and digestion (Stock et al. 1979). However, response to supplemental protein is sometimes limited (Rittenhouse et al. 1970). High energy, low protein supplements have decreased feed intake (Rittenhouse et al., 1970) and digestion (Cook and Harris, 1968) of dormant winter range. Enhanced characterization of protein sources for solubility, degradability and digestibility has led to improved forage utilization and animal performance. However, these effects are not fully appreciated for alternative methods of supplementation. Specifically, alternate day supplementation studies have typically used only a single supplemental source of protein. Alternate day protein supplementation has consistently been shown not to reduce animal performance compared to daily supplementation (Pope et al., 1963; Coleman and Wyatt, 1982). No studies have concurrently fed two supplemental protein sources alternate days. It may be that differences between protein sources would contribute to nitrogen wastage by the animal (Petersen, 1987). The effect of alternate day feeding of variable ruminal escape protein sources is not known. Furthermore, confounding supplemental ionophore with alternate day feeding of variable ruminal escape protein is not adequately characterized. The intent of this study was to characterize ruminal and animal responses to daily and alternate day feeding of low and high ruminal escape protein sources. In addition, we tested the applicability of these feeding regimens, with and without monensin and determined if dietary protein level affects the utilization of l ow and high ruminal escape protein when fed alternate days.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Cattle -- Feeding and feeds
Proteins in animal nutrition
Meal as feed



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University