Seng-Fong Lee

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Civil Engineering

First Advisor

Dwayne A. Rollag


In this study, various concentrations of feedwater iron and manganese were prepared to simulate typical iron and manganese concentrations in the groundwater, and fed to three different methods for removing iron and manganese. These methods included direct filtration, aeration/filtration, and ozonation/filtration. A contact time of 7.5 minutes was provided. With air flow rate of 0.47 slpm and water flow rate of 0.7 slpm, the air/water ratio of 0.67 was obtained and was kept constant. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of various iron concentrations on manganese removal. Secondary objectives were to determine the volume of water that could be filtered prior to breakthrough, internal performance of the pilot-system units, and head loss accumulation in the dual-media filter. Aeration only was found to oxidize soluble iron but not manganese. Ozonation/filtration was the only method found capable of effectively oxidizing both iron and manganese. This study also showed that ozone transfer efficiencies appeared to decrease gradually with increases in stoichiometrical ozone dosage. Ozone residuals showed a general trend of increasing with the applied dosage. The anthracite coal media was not capable of removing iron and manganese to the recommended limits toward the end of most runs, and greensand is required to effectively remove iron and manganese. Overall, the concentration of iron in the feedwater did not exert as much of an impact on manganese removal as did the amount of manganese for the three methods of treatment studied. Finally, ozonation/filtration was the only treatment method in these studies to remove all combinations of feedwater iron and manganese concentrations to levels complying with the USPHS drinking water standards regardless of head loss incurred.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Water -- Purification -- Manganese removal
Water -- Purification -- Iron removal -- Purification -- Filtration -- Purification -- Ozonation



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University