Sim Aun Ong

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Civil Engineering

First Advisor

Dwayne A. Rollag


The use of manganese greensand for removal of iron and manganese from water by ion exchange/absorption and filtration is a well-accepted water treatment practice. This process requires the use of potassium permanganate for regenerating the manganese greensand. Although potassium permanganate is a relatively stable, safe chemical to handle, it is a fairly strong oxidizing agent. It is generally in solid (crystalline) form. It is then mixed with water to obtain a feed solution that is used in the treatment process. Generally, this work is carried out by experienced water treatment operators well-trained in the procedures for safe handling of chemicals. In adapting this process for use in the home, the handling of potassium permanganate becomes one of the more objectional factors. Most home dwellers are not as skilled as water treatment plant operators and thus would be more likely to encounter greater risk in working with permanganate. Ozone has been found capable of oxidizing manganese in water to form permanganate. If this method could be used to produce the permanganate for regeneration manganese greensand, the need for adding this chemical in either solid or liquid form would be eliminated a long with the hazards of handling it. The research presented in this thesis is designed to determine the feasibility of using ozonation for permanganate regeneration of manganese greensand and compare it with the conventional chemical feed method. The major research objective of this study is to determine whether or not it is feasible to use ozone instead of potassium permanganate to regenerate manganese greensand filter media. In addressing this overall objective, it will be necessary to: (1) compare the removal of manganese, in terms of manganese removed per unit volume of manganese greensand, using manganese greensand regenerated by permanganate produced by ozonation of the raw water versus potassium permanganate regenerated manganese greensand; (2) determine the length of time required for regeneration of manganese greensand using ozone versus using potassium permanganate; and (3) determine the cost of regeneration using ozone versus potassium permanganate.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Water -- Purification -- Manganese removal -- Purification -- Iron removal -- Purification -- Filtration



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University