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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Physical Education

First Advisor

James E. Lidstone


The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of injury on the various aspects of self-esteem identified in Sonstroem and Morgan's (1989) model. More specifically this study evaluated the effect of injury on self-esteem, physical competence, physical acceptance, and physical self-efficacy. 98 male college varsity football players were tested before the season began. Upon injury, the athlete became a member of the injured group and was administered the same battery of tests approximately 48 hours following the injury. A final administration of the tests took place when the team physical therapist determined that the injured athlete was physically ready to return to competition. At the time the athlete was injured a non-injured athlete was selected for the control-group based upon similarities in pre-season scores on the dependent variables. The non-injured controls were retested on the same schedule as their injured counterparts. For each dependent variable a 2 x 3 factorial analysis of variance with repeated measures was conducted to examine group change and group differences over the course of the study. The .05 level of significance was used for all comparisons. Self-esteem and physical acceptance were not significantly affected by injury. For physical competence, no significant treatment or treatment x time effect was observed, however, the time factor was significant indicating a total group fluctuation in physical competence. Physical self-efficacy, as expected, was most affected by injury. Significant treatment, time, and treatment x time effects were observed due to a significant drop in physical self-efficacy by the injured subjects following trauma. It was concluded that Sonstroem and Morgan's model is valid for understanding the relationship between physical self-efficacy, physical competence, physical acceptance, and self-esteem.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Football injuries -- Psychological aspects
Sports injuries -- Psychological aspects



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University