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Todd R. Mills

Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Wildlife and Fisheries Science

First Advisor

Lester D. Flake


Non- game birds were counted in seven structural stages of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), four structural stages of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides ), and meadow habitats of the Black Hills, South Dakota during 1992 and 1993. I observed 69 species during this study. Dark - eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) were common in all habitats except meadows. The Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) were abundant in ponderosa pine habitats and Warbling Vireos (Vireo gilvus) were abundant in aspen habitats averaging 0.64 and 1.12 birds/50 m radius, respectively. Species richness and species diversity were higher (P < 0.1) in aspen than in ponderosa pine or meadows. Sapling-pole structural stages of aspen with moderate overstory canopy cover (40-70%) had the highest species richness (3.18) and species diversity indices (3.09). Hierarchial log-linear analysis was used to model variation in abundance o f21 bird species among structural stages, years, sample sessions, and interactive sources of variation. Variation due to structural stages was evident for all species except Warbling Vireos. Model were created incorporating these factors and their interactions that best described individual abundance. Annual and sample session variation was specific to individual species. Log-linear models for the White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) (P=0.99), Ruby crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) (P=0.91) and Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) (P=0.77) produced the best fit of abundance data to their specific models.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Birds -- Effect of habitat modification on -- Black Hills National Forest (S.D. and Wyo.)
Bird populations -- Black Hills National Forest (S.D. and Wyo.)
Forest management -- Black Hills National Forest (S.D. and Wyo.)


Includes bibliographical references (page 124-134)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


Copyright © 1994 Todd R. Mills. All rights reserved.