A Survey of the Insect Fauna of Canada Thistle, Cirsium Arvense, in South Dakota; and Studies Relating to Biological Control by Ceutorhynchus Litura and Cassida Rubiginose
Dissertation - Open Access
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Department / School
Benjamin H. Kantack
A total of 121 indigenous insect taxa representing 9 orders, 64 families, 103 genera and 118 species was collected from Canada thistle (Compositae: Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) in South Dakota during 1970 through 1973. This survey identified the major phytophagous and entomophagous insect fauna associated with this noxious weed. The common phytophagous species observed feeding on thistle were all polyphagous and failed to control Canada thistle below the economic level. Field cage releases of adult Ceutorhynchus litura (F.) weevils were made on a thistle infested pasture site located in east central South Dakota during 1972-1973. Ninety-nine weevils were released in 1972 and approximately 150 in 1973. Initial overwintering success was observed when 2 adults were found in the field cage in April and May 1973. The thistle stand in the field cage declined during the summer due to insect damage caused by large infestations of the aphid, Dactynotus cirsii (L.), the four-lined leaf bug, Poecilocapsus lineatus (F.), and possibly the weevil C. litura. These results indicate that C. litura probably can be colonized in South Dakota. No natural enemies of this insect were found during the study. Attempts to establish a laboratory colony of the tortoise beetle, Cassida rubiginosa Mull., were not successful.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Weeds -- Biological control
South Dakota State University
Nearman, Lance Jerome, "A Survey of the Insect Fauna of Canada Thistle, Cirsium Arvense, in South Dakota; and Studies Relating to Biological Control by Ceutorhynchus Litura and Cassida Rubiginose" (1973). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 5508.