Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department / School

Animal Science

First Advisor

C.W. Carlson


Three experiments each with two phases were conducted to study the effect of different levels of distillers dried grain (DDG), fat, oats and a mixture of oats and DDG on Fatty Liver Hemorrhagic Syndrome (FLHS) in caged laying hens. The second phase of each experiment was conducted by force-feeding the same diets used in the first phase at 120% of their normal intakes. This produces FLHS and thereby permits studying the effect of diets. During the force-feeding period of the third experiment, serum estradiol levels of hens from each treatment and each type of feeding were measured to study the effect of endogenous estradiol level on FLHS. The 30% DDG in the diet was more effective against FLHS than when present at the 20% level. Addition of 5 to 10% grease in the diet decreased feed consumption significantly (P<0.05). Only oats or the mixture of oats and DDG in the diet reduced FLHS significantly as cornpared to when DDG alone was included in the diet or the regular corn-soy ration was used. The serum estradiol level and liver hemorrhage incidences of hens on the DDG diet were significantly (P<0.05) higher suggesting that endogenous estradiol level is also involved in FLHS. Depending on the amount of fat present in the liver varying sizes of fat droplets inside the liver cells were revealed by photomicrographs. In some instances the larger lipid droplets made for some morphological changes inside the cell, obviously due to pressure, which could also be one of the causes of hemorrhage. Force-feeding at 120% of the normal intake has continued to be effective in producing FLHS.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Fatty liver syndrome of chickens
Poultry -- Diseases
Poultry -- Feeding and feeds




South Dakota State University