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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Civil Engineering

First Advisor

Delvin E. DeBoer


The primary goal of the Huron Project is to evaluate the recharge potential of buried glacial aquifers. The basic concept is to use high flows from the nearby James River during spring runoff periods as a source of injectate to artificially recharge the Warren aquifer. This water will be treated at the Huron Municipal Water Treatment Facility and then pumped through an existing pipeline to the recharge site. Injection will occur using two wells to be installed approximately 100 feet to the north and south of monitoring well 16. As shown in Figure 3, well 16 is located in the northwest sector of the well field. To determine the artificial recharge potential of buried glacial aquifers in South Dakota, the specific objectives of the Huron Project include (Plan of Development 1990): 1. evaluate the use of injection wells to recharge a buried glacial outwash aquifer, 2. determine the rates of artificial recharge using James River water and spring and/or storm runoff, 3. determine the water level effects of artificial recharge on the aquifer, 4. determine water quality changes due to introduction of artificial recharge water into the aquifer, and 5. develop an evaluation technique to assess the artificial recharge potential of other glacial areas in South Dakota. The primary goal of the study reported herein is to investigate the pre-recharge condition of the study area and provide a baseline to which the post-recharge results can be compared (parts three and four of the overall objectives). As stated previously, a criterion for site selection was avoidance of adverse environmental problems such as aquifer water quality degradation. Therefore, the baseline data collected in the initial phase of the project will enable delineation of post-recharge findings. The Huron Project requires detailed monitoring, screening program and recharge plume monitoring. The detailed monitoring includes water quality sampling of upgradient wells, downgradient wells, surface-water runoff, raw James River water and treated effluent water from the Huron Drinking Water Treatment Facility during specified periods (Plan of Development 1990). Recharge plume monitoring will use nested monitoring wells in the recharge well vicinity to investigate vertical and horizontal injectate migration during and after artificial recharge periods. The screening program provided data for this project. This program will collect data to characterize the aquifer in the study area prior to artificial recharge. The screening program data will be used to perform the following specific tasks: 1. determine the areal variations of water quality and water levels and explain possible causes of the variations, 2. determine seasonal variations in water quality and water levels, 3. determine the effects of natural recharge infiltrating through the overlying glacial till on the aquifer water quality and water levels, 4. determine if water quality differences occur at different depths in the aquifer, and 5. determine if correlations exist between aquifer depths and water quality in the aquifer in the study area. The screening program approach recommended using data from 10 wells to determine seasonal variation (Plan of Development 1990). After examination of preliminary water quality and water level data, 8 wells were selected. On an approximate bimonthly basis from June 1991 until September 1992, water quality and water levels were measured for these 8 wells. Data continues to be collected from these wells on the same schedule but will not be used in this study. Data from the screening program wells are utilized herein to examine seasonal water level and quality variations. Screening program well data and additional project monitoring well data are utilized to define the areal pre-recharge condition of the aquifer in the study area. Till well water level data are used to determine infiltration rates through the overlying glacial till.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Artificial recharge of groundwater
Aquifers -- South Dakota -- Huron Region




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